Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 38/3 (December 2016)

Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 38/3 (December 2016)
Ian Storey, editor
Date of publication:  December 2016
Publisher:  ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute
Number of pages:  212
Code:  CS38/3
Soft Cover
ISSN: 0129797X
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About the publication

  • Attained impact factor of 0.906 in Social Sciences Citation Index 2017
  • Ranked 18th by Google Scholar Metrics 2018 in the Asian Studies and History category

Contents

  • Contemporary Southeast Asia Vol. 38/3 (December 2016)
    [Whole Publication]
  • Preliminary pages
  • ROUNDTABLE
  • 1. Roundtable: The Arbitral Tribunal's Ruling on the South China Sea - Implications and Regional Responses, by Clive Schofield, Lowell Bautista, Nong Hong, Anne Hsiu-an Hsiao, Nguyen Thi Tuong Anh, Prashanth Parameswaran, Evan Laksmana, authors
  • ARTICLES
  • 2. Deciphering the Shift in America's South China Sea Policy, by Phuong Nguyen, author
    <div><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 13px;">China’s massive reclamation work in the disputed Spratly Islands in&nbsp;</span></font><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">the South China Sea between 2013 and 2015 was a turning point in&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">US policy towards the South China Sea. China intends to use the&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">artificial islands it has constructed — and the infrastructure it is in&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">the process of installing on them — for military purposes. While for&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">many years the United States largely positioned itself above the long-simmering&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">territorial and maritime jurisdictional disputes between&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">China and five Southeast Asian countries, the prospect of China&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">using its buildup in the southern reaches of the South China Sea to&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">establish greater control of its near seas, in the process diminishing&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">US access to the waters and airspace of the world’s most critical&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">waterways, prompted a reassessment in Washington about the South&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">China Sea being part of larger US core interests, and its grand&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">strategy in the Western Pacific. Washington has responded to China’s&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">reclamation and construction spree with a new, active strategy that&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">aims to deter China from taking further actions at its reclaimed&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">features that would alter the existing military balance of power in the&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">region and make China pay a “net effect” for its behaviour — should&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">it continue to pursue an aggressive course of actions — by engaging&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">more actively with Southeast Asian partners.</span></div>
  • 3. Xi Jinping's Foreign Policy Dilemma: One Belt, One Road or the South China Sea?, by Wenjuan Nie, author
    <div><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 13px;">This article utilizes the elements of leadership, political performance&nbsp;</span></font><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">and national interests to understand China’s foreign policy decision-making&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">process. In contrast to a state-centred analysis, this article&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">assumes that the supreme leadership’s view of political performance&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">is the most important factor when it comes to foreign policy decision-making.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">It contends that so-called national interests are often&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">manipulated to serve particular political agendas. Specifically, this&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">article explores whether the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">or advancing China’s interests in the South China Sea can be better&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">utilized to improve Chinese President Xi Jinping’s political performance.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">The comparison between the two issues incorporates the dimensions of&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">feasibility, significance and morality. In the final analysis, this article&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">finds that the OBOR is likely to be better utilized to enhance Xi’s&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">political performance, which yields some salient implications for future&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">trends in China’s foreign policy.</span></div>
  • 4. Russia's Image and Soft Power Resources in Southeast Asia: Perceptions among Young Elites in Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, by Alexander Bukh, author
    <div><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 13px;">Since the early 2000s, “soft power” has become one of the most&nbsp;</span></font><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">popular analytical tools in International Relations scholarship devoted&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">to analyzing the influence of states in the international arena. Although&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">scholars of Russian foreign policy have also embraced the notion of&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">“soft power”, they have mainly limited the scope of their analysis to&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">Western countries and the former Soviet republics. In contrast, this&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">article focuses on Laos, Vietnam and Thailand, countries whose history&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">of relations with Russia are fundamentally different from both the</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">West and Russia’s “near abroad”. By analyzing the images of Russia&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">and its soft power resources in these countries, this article seeks to&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">create a more comprehensive understanding of the ways contemporary&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">Russia is perceived in the world and its potential tools of influence in&nbsp;</span><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif">Southeast Asia. Drawing on the results of a survey conducted among&nbsp;</font>university students, this article examines the ways young educated&nbsp;elites in the three countries perceive Russia. It also explores the degree&nbsp;of correspondence between these images and the self-image of Russia&nbsp;espoused by its political elites. The results of this study suggest that&nbsp;while overall Russia is perceived as a Great Power, and its role in the&nbsp;world is seen as mostly positive, there are also important dissonances between the two images. Based on discernible differences among the&nbsp;three groups of respondents in the ways they perceive &nbsp;Russia, the&nbsp;article also suggests that historical memory plays an important role in&nbsp;shaping these perceptions.</div>
  • 5. Campaigning for All Indonesians: The Politics of Healthcare in Indonesia, by Eunsook Jung, author
    <div><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 13px;">Many &nbsp; scholars &nbsp;argue &nbsp; that &nbsp; democratization &nbsp;is &nbsp;conducive &nbsp;to &nbsp; the&nbsp;</span></font><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">development of social &nbsp;welfare policies and &nbsp;that &nbsp;democracy brings &nbsp;about redistributive &nbsp;reform due &nbsp; to &nbsp;demands from &nbsp; the &nbsp; newly &nbsp;enfranchised poor. &nbsp;In &nbsp;reality, however, democratization &nbsp;does &nbsp; not &nbsp;necessarily &nbsp;bring about &nbsp;comprehensive &nbsp;social &nbsp; welfare reform. &nbsp;If &nbsp;not &nbsp; democratization, what explains social &nbsp;welfare expansion in &nbsp;developing countries? This article &nbsp;examines Indonesia, which began &nbsp;the &nbsp;process of democratization in &nbsp;1998 &nbsp;following the &nbsp;fall &nbsp;of &nbsp;President Soeharto, &nbsp;and &nbsp;which has &nbsp;since become &nbsp;a &nbsp;stable &nbsp;democracy &nbsp;with &nbsp; a &nbsp;consistently &nbsp;growing &nbsp; economy. More &nbsp;than &nbsp;a &nbsp;decade &nbsp;after &nbsp; Soeharto’s &nbsp;resignation, &nbsp;Indonesia &nbsp;started to &nbsp;implement a &nbsp;comprehensive healthcare policy. What explains the gap &nbsp;between &nbsp;the &nbsp; enactment &nbsp;and &nbsp; the &nbsp; implementation &nbsp;of &nbsp;this &nbsp; social policy reform? &nbsp;In answering this &nbsp;question, I argue that &nbsp;electoral competition &nbsp;alone &nbsp;does &nbsp; not &nbsp; shape &nbsp;social &nbsp; policy &nbsp;reform. &nbsp;Instead, social &nbsp; reform &nbsp;has &nbsp; institutional &nbsp;prerequisites, such &nbsp;as &nbsp;the &nbsp; broad- based organization of its advocates. A broad-based organization goes beyond its &nbsp;narrow &nbsp; interests, builds cross-class alliance and &nbsp;pressures the &nbsp; government. Without &nbsp;this &nbsp; prerequisite, democratization &nbsp;does &nbsp; not&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">necessarily result &nbsp;in comprehensive social &nbsp;reforms.</span></div>
  • 6. Reflections of a Reformed JIhadist: The Story of Wan Min Wan Mat, by Kumar Ramakrishna, author
    <div><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif"><span style="font-size: 13px;">On &nbsp;29 &nbsp;August &nbsp;2012, &nbsp; a &nbsp;rehabilitated &nbsp;former &nbsp;senior &nbsp; member &nbsp;of &nbsp;the&nbsp;</span></font><font face="helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif" style="font-size: 12px;"><span style="font-size: 13px;">Jemaah Islamiyah &nbsp;(JI) terror &nbsp;network, Wan &nbsp; Min &nbsp; Wan &nbsp; Mat, &nbsp;delivered a &nbsp;lecture to &nbsp;a &nbsp;group of &nbsp;Malaysian counter-terrorism practitioners &nbsp;in which he &nbsp;sketched out the &nbsp; ideological rationale and &nbsp; aims of &nbsp;the &nbsp; JI network, unpacked in &nbsp;some detail its recruitment and &nbsp; indoctrination philosophy and &nbsp;methodology and &nbsp;also examined what in &nbsp;his &nbsp;personal view &nbsp;are &nbsp;potentially useful strategies for &nbsp;rehabilitating JI militants &nbsp;or preventing the &nbsp;further dissemination of &nbsp;JI extremist ideas. This article examines and &nbsp;evaluates some of the &nbsp;key &nbsp;insights made by Wan &nbsp;Min &nbsp;in his lecture, and &nbsp;argues &nbsp;that &nbsp;his &nbsp;musings are more &nbsp;than mere &nbsp;historical interest &nbsp;in &nbsp;that &nbsp; they &nbsp; have &nbsp; direct &nbsp;relevance &nbsp;to &nbsp;the &nbsp; current &nbsp;struggle against &nbsp;the &nbsp; latest incarnation &nbsp;of &nbsp;the &nbsp; continually &nbsp;evolving &nbsp;violent jihadist &nbsp;threat &nbsp;in &nbsp;Southeast &nbsp;Asia &nbsp; and &nbsp; globally, namely &nbsp;the &nbsp; Islamic State &nbsp;of &nbsp;Iraq &nbsp;and &nbsp; Syria &nbsp; (ISIS &nbsp; or &nbsp;IS). The central &nbsp;reason &nbsp;for &nbsp;this &nbsp; is that &nbsp; the &nbsp; same &nbsp;broad &nbsp; ideology &nbsp;that &nbsp; animated &nbsp;JI —Salafi &nbsp;Jihadism&nbsp;</span></font><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">— basically motivates ISIS &nbsp;as well. &nbsp;Hence, even &nbsp;allowing for dissimilarities in &nbsp;time and &nbsp; space, Wan &nbsp; Min’s &nbsp;insights about JI could well &nbsp; provide useful &nbsp;pointers for &nbsp;counter-terrorism &nbsp;practitioners &nbsp;and&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 13px; font-family: helvetica, arial, verdana, sans-serif;">specialists dealing with the ISIS &nbsp;threat today."</span></div>
  • BOOK REVIEWS
  • BOOK REVIEW: The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia. By Kurt M. Campbell, by Simon Long, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: Thai Politics: Between Democracy and Its Discontents. By Daniel H. Unger and Chandra Mahakanjana, by Aim Sinpeng, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: Democratization through Migration? Political Remittances and Participation of Philippine Return Migrants. By Christl Kessler and Stefan Rother, by Carmel V. Abao, author
  • BOOk REVIEW: Governing Cambodia's Forests: The International Politics of Policy Reform. By Andrew Cock BOOK REVIEW: Cambodia's Second Kingdom: Nation, Imagination, and Democracy. By Astrid Noren-Nilsson, by Sophal Ear, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: Activism and Aid: Young Citizens' Experiences of Development and Democracy in Timor-Leste. By Ann Wigglesworth, by Angie Bexley, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: The Politics of Aid to Burma: A Humanitarian Struggle on the Thai-Burmese Border. By Anne Decobert, by Carine Jaquet, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: The Handbook of Contemporary Cambodia. Edited by Katherine Brickell and Simon Springer, by Veronika Stepkova, author
  • BOOK REVIEW: Humanizing the Sacred: Sisters in Islam and the Struggle for Gender Justice in Malaysia. By Azza Basarudin, by Rusaslina Idrus, author

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